The main types of solar cells

1. Monocrystalline silicon: the solar cell with the highest photoelectric conversion rate has been commercialized at present, and the highest conversion rate can reach 25%. The disadvantage is that it is relatively expensive and requires high purity of silicon.
2. Polysilicon: the price is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon, but the photoelectric conversion rate is lower.
3. Cadmium telluride (CdTe)/gallium arsenide (GaAs) : cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are ideal materials for solar cells because their bandwidths basically match the solar spectrum, with a maximum conversion rate of 17%. Cadmium telluride layers can be obtained by evaporation, electronic evaporation, printing, etc. Cadmium telluride is plated with cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenate. The cell is made of cadmium, a by-product of zinc production.
4. Copper indium gallium selenium (CIGS) : high photoelectric conversion rate, up to 19.9% for a single battery. The substrate may be glass, stainless steel or polymer. As thin film solar energy, less material, low price. The CIGS layer can be prepared in a variety of ways, such as sputtering, co-evaporation, printing or electroplating. Add a layer of CdS and aluminum-doped zinc oxide to the CIGS layer.
5. Perovskite solar cells: the perovskite used in solar cells has ABX3 structure, generally cubic or octahedral structure. A is A large cation; B is small metal cation; X is a halogen anion. With stable crystal structure, unique electromagnetic properties and high REDOX, hydrolysis, isomerization, light absorption, electrocatalysis and other activities, it is a new functional material.
At present, there are mainly the following research fields about perovskite: HTM type and structure optimization; Perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, ch3nh3pbi3-xclx, CsSnI3, etc.); Interface problems; Optimization of battery preparation method; Basic theoretical research, etc.
6. Organic solar cells: divided into two categories, one is small molecule dye-sensitized solar cells, such as porphyrins; Another type is polymer solar cells, such as thiophene polymer.

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