Industrial use of vanadium

Add a few percent of vanadium in steel, can make the elasticity of steel, strength increase, anti – wear and anti – crack very good, both high temperature resistance and anti – cold, no wonder in the automobile, aviation, railway, electronic technology, defense industry and other sectors, everywhere can be seen to trace vanadium. In addition, vanadium oxide has become one of the best catalysts in the chemical industry, including “chemical bread”
Mainly used in the manufacture of high-speed cutting steel and other alloy steel and catalyst. Vanadium steel can be made by mixing it with steel. Vanadium steel is more compact than ordinary steel structure and has higher toughness, elasticity and mechanical strength. Vanadium steel penetrator, can shoot through 40 cm thick steel plate. However, in the iron and steel industry, the pure metal vanadium is not added to the iron and steel to make vanadium steel, but the direct use of vanadium containing iron ore into vanadium steel.
Vanadium has many excellent physical and chemical properties, so vanadium is widely used, known as a metal “vitamin”. The initial vanadium is mostly used in steel, which increases the strength, toughness and wear resistance of the steel by refining the structure and grain size of the steel and raising the grain coarsening temperature. Later, people gradually discovered the excellent improvement effect of vanadium in titanium alloy and applied it in the field of aerospace, which made the aerospace industry make a breakthrough. With the rapid development of science and technology, the demand for new materials is increasing. Vanadium is more and more widely used in non-steel fields, including aerospace, chemistry, battery, pigment, glass, optics, medicine and many other fields. Vanadium “monosodium glutamate of modern industry” is an indispensable material for the development of modern industry, modern national defense and modern science and technology. Vanadium is used most in metallurgy. Worldwide, the consumption of vanadium in the steel industry accounts for 85% of its production. At the same time, vanadium in chemical industry, vanadium batteries, aerospace and other fields of application is also expanding, and has a good development prospects.
Vanadium is mainly used as an alloy additive in the iron and steel industry. In other words, the demand for vanadium in steel determines the fate of the vanadium industry.
China produces about 600 million tons of steel, and the average consumption intensity of vanadium per ton increases by 10 grams, to about 11,000 tons of vanadium pentoxide. In the United States, carbon steel and high-strength low-alloy steel are the largest vanadium consumption in the steel industry, accounting for more than 60% of the vanadium consumption in the steel industry, followed by high-alloy steel.
Vanadium battery
Vanadium battery is one of the excellent green and environment-friendly batteries with strong development momentum at present (its manufacturing, use and waste process do not produce harmful substances). Charging quickly; Higher than energy; Low price; The application field is very broad: for example, it can be used as the backup power supply of buildings, airports and program-controlled switching stations; It can be used as a supporting energy storage device for solar energy and other clean power generation systems. It provides electricity for submarines, ocean-going vessels and USES the electricity grid to adjust peak times.
The cost of vanadium battery is similar to that of lead-acid battery, and it can also produce a megawatt battery pack with high power and long time to provide electric energy. Therefore, vanadium battery has incomparable cost-performance advantages in the field of large-scale energy storage, such as lithium ion battery and nickel metal hydride battery. Vanadium batteries are simple in production process, economical in price and excellent in electrical performance. Compared with complex and expensive fuel cells, they are more competitive in terms of energy storage on a large scale and the application prospect of power supply for electric vehicles.
Compared with other chemical power sources, vanadium battery has obvious advantages, the main advantages are as follows: 1. High power: by increasing the number of single battery and electrode area, the power of vanadium battery can be increased. 2. Large capacity: by arbitrarily increasing the volume of electrolyte, the power of vanadium battery can be arbitrarily increased, up to more than jiwatt hours; By increasing the concentration of electrolyte, the power of vanadium battery can be multiplied. 3, high efficiency: because of the vanadium battery electrode catalytic activity is high, and the positive and negative electrode active substances are stored in the positive and negative electrolyte storage tank, avoid the positive and negative electrode active substances of self-discharge consumption, vanadium battery charge and discharge energy conversion efficiency up to more than 75%, much higher than the lead acid battery 45%. 4, long life: because vanadium battery positive and negative electrode active substances only exist in the positive and negative electrolyte, charging and discharging without other batteries often phase change, can be deep discharge without damage to the battery, the battery life is long. At present, the vanadium battery module with the longest running time in commercial demonstration has been in normal operation for more than 9 years, with a charging and discharging cycle life of more than 18,000 times, much higher than the 1,000 times of fixed lead-acid batteries. 5. Fast response speed: the vanadium battery pile full of electrolyte can be started in an instant, and it only takes 0.02 seconds to switch charge and discharge status during operation, and the response speed is 1 millisecond. 6. Instantaneous charging: vanadium battery can be instantly charged by changing electrolyte. 7. High safety: vanadium battery has no potential risk of explosion or fire. Even if the positive and negative electrolyte is mixed, there is no danger. 8, low cost: in addition to ion membrane, vanadium battery components are mostly cheap carbon materials, engineering plastics, material sources are rich, easy to recycle, do not need precious metals as electrode catalyst, low cost. 9, vanadium battery location freedom, full automatic closed operation, pollution-free, simple maintenance, low operating costs.

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